Main Article Content
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTis) whether caused by fungi or bacteria, are categorized into two sections (lower and upper urinary tract infections) which may occur in asymptomatic or symptomatic forms. Increasing incidence in recent years of this infection is significantly associated with extensive and prolonged use of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive and cytotoxic drugs. This is caused by an increase in antimicrobial resistance and the restricted number of antifungal drugs, which retain many side effects.
Aim: This research was setup to isolate and identify different fungi species responsible for genito-urinary tract infection and to determine their antifungal susceptibility pattern and to evaluate the degree of resistance to antifungal drugs.
Study Design: 40 Urine samples were collected using a sterile urinary cup and 10 vaginal swabs were collected using sterile swab sticks. Different diagnostic methods were used for characterization of these fungi species.
Results: Results showed that 34% of urine samples tested positive for different Candida spp., which includes C. albicans and C. glabrata and 22% tested positive for different Aspergillus spp. which were A. flavus, A. fumigatis and A. niger.
Conclusion: Antifungal resistance assay was carried out on the isolates using two common antifungal drugs Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. Candida spp. showed little resistance against Fluconazole but showed sensitivity to various concentration of Amphotericin B. Aspergillus showed resistance to Fluconazole but showed sensitivity to Amphotericin B.
Helbig S, et al. Diagnosis and inflammatory response of patients with candiduria. Mycoses. 2013;56(1):61-69.
Gajdács M, et al. Epidemiology of candiduria and Candida urinary tract infections in inpatients and outpatients: Results from a 10-year retrospective survey. Central European Journal of Urology. 2019;72(2):209.
Gupta K, Hooton TM, Stamm WE. Increasing antimicrobial resistance and the management of uncomplicated community-acquired urinary tract infections. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2001;135(1):41-50.
Gajdács M, Urbán E. The relevance of anaerobic bacteria in brain abscesses: A ten-year retrospective analysis (2008–2017). Infectious Diseases. 2019;51(10): 779-781.
Gajdács M, Urbán E. Epidemiological trends and resistance associated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteremia: A 10-year retrospective cohort study in a tertiary-care hospital in Hungary. Diseases. 2019;7(2):41.
Arendrup MC, et al. Seminational surveillance of fungemia in Denmark: Notably high rates of fungemia and numbers of isolates with reduced azole susceptibility. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2005;43(9):4434-4440.
Sobel JD, et al. Candida urinary tract infections—epidemiology. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2011;52(Suppl_6): S433-S436.
Mishra NN, Ali S, Shukla PK. Arachidonic acid affects biofilm formation and PGE2 level in Candida albicans and non-albicans species in presence of subinhibitory concentration of fluconazole and terbinafine. The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2014;18(3):287-293.
Okungbowa FI, Isikhuemen O, Dede AP. The distribution frequency of Candida species in the genitourinary tract among symptomatic individuals in Nigerian cities. Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. 2003;20(2):60-63.
Gajdács M. Epidemiology and antibiotic resistance trends of Pantoea species in a tertiary-care teaching hospital: A 12-year retrospective study. Developments in Health Sciences. 2019;2(3):72-75.
Gajdács M, et al. Microbiology of urine samples obtained through suprapubic bladder aspiration: A 10-year epidemiological snapshot. Developments in Health Sciences. 2019;1-3.
Etienne M, Caron F. Management of fungal urinary tract infections. Presse medicale (Paris, France: 1983). 2007;36(12 Pt 3): 1899-1906.
Eggimann P, Garbino J, Pittet D. Epidemiology of Candida species infections in critically ill non-immunosuppressed patients. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2003;3(11):685-702.
Shao L, Sheng C, Zhang W. Recent advances in the study of antifungal lead compounds with new chemical scaffolds. Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica. 2007;42(11):1129-1136.
Kauffman CA, et al. Candida urinary tract infections—diagnosis. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2011;52(Suppl_6):S452-S456.
Cornely O, et al. ESCMID* guideline for the diagnosis and management of Candida diseases 2012: Non‐neutropenic adult patients. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2012;18:19-37.
Leonardelli F, et al. Aspergillus fumigatus intrinsic fluconazole resistance is due to the naturally occurring T301I substitution in Cyp51Ap. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2016;60(9):5420-5426.
Yang YL, et al. Susceptibilities of Candida species to amphotericin B and fluconazole: The emergence of fluconazole resistance in Candida tropicalis. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. 2004;25(1):60-64.
Spengler G, et al. Organoselenium compounds as novel adjuvants of chemotherapy drugs — A promising approach to fight cancer drug resistance. Molecules. 2019;24(2):336.