Urological Emergencies; Spectrum of Cases Seen Over a Three Year Period in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in West Africa

Okpani C.P. *

University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Kufre U.

University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Background: Urological emergencies are genitourinary conditions requiring immediate intervention to reduce morbidity and prevent mortality. The intervention may be medical or surgical. It constitutes a significant part of emergency presentations in our centre, however, there is a paucity of data on the pattern of these emergencies in our sub-region.

Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of urological emergencies in our centre aiming at bridging the gap in the knowledge of the epidemiology of urological emergencies in this sub-region to achieve efficient use of available scarce resources.

Methodology: The study was a three-year retrospective evaluation of urological patients presenting at the Accident and Emergency Department of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. The accident and emergency department admission register and emergency theatre register were retrieved, and data was extracted, coded into Excel, and analyzed using SPSS Version 26.

Results: A total of eighteen thousand, one hundred and ninety-four emergencies were admitted over the study period of which Five hundred and ninety-two (592) patients had urological conditions. This gave a prevalence of urological emergencies was 3.25%. The ages ranged from 4 years to 100 years with a mean age of 56.0±20.18. Five hundred and forty-six (92.2%) were male while 46 (7.8%) were female. Urinary retention (281, 47.47%) was the commonest emergency followed by trauma (71, 10.64%), haematuria (99, 8.78%), and testicular torsion 33 (5.57%). Bladder injury was the commonest traumatic injury. Urethral catheterization 252 (42.57%) was the commonest emergency intervention while suprapubic cystostomy 60 (34.29%) was the commonest operative procedure.

Conclusion: The prevalence of urological emergencies in our Centre is 3.25% with urinary retention being the commonest emergency.

Keywords: Urological emergencies, urinary retention, hematuria, urethral catheterization, suprapubic cystostomy

How to Cite

Okpani C.P., & Kufre U. (2024). Urological Emergencies; Spectrum of Cases Seen Over a Three Year Period in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in West Africa. Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Urology, 7(1), 20–27. Retrieved from https://journalajrru.com/index.php/AJRRU/article/view/114


Download data is not yet available.


Mungadi IA, Khalid A. Spectrum of urological cases in a West African Tertiary Hospital. Annals of African Med. 2021; 20:14-8.

Martin L, Pillot P, Bardonnaud N, Lillaz J, Chabannes E, Bernardini S et al. Evaluation of the activity of a urological emergency unit in university hospital. Prog Urol. 2014 Jan;24(1):62-6.

Fall B, Diao B, Fall PA, Diallo Y, Sow Y, Ondongo AA et al. Urological emergencies at the Dakar University teaching hospital. Epidemiological, Clinical and therapeutic features. Prog Urol 2008;1 8:650-3.

Okeke CJ, Obi AO, Odoemene CA, Ojewola RW, Afogu EN, Odo C, et al. Urological emergencies in a Nigerian teaching hospital: Epidemiology and treatment. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. 2021;24:400-5.

Yenli EM, Aboaha K, Gyasi-Sarponga CK, Azorliade R, Arhina AA. Acute and chronic urine retention among adults at the urology section of the accident and emergency unit of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana. African Journal of Urology. 2015 Aug 18;21(2):129-36.

Dejinnin AJ, Natchagande G, Soumanou F, Oliyide A, Yevi M, Hodonou F, et al. Genitourinary emergencies at University Hospital in Cotonou. Med Surg Urol. 2017; 3-7.

Muhammad AS, Agwu NP, Abdulwahab-Ahmed A, Onwuasoanya UE, Khalid A, Obadele OG, et al. Spectrum and management of urological emergencies at tertiary hospital in North Western Nigeria. J Med & Bas Sci Res. 2021;2:84-6.

Meara JG, Leather AJ, Hagander L, Alkire BC, Alonso N, Ameh EA et al. Global, surgery 2030: Evidence and solutions for achieving health, welfare and economic development. Lancet. 2015;386:569-624.

Saraceno B, Van OM, Batniji R. Barriers to improvement of mental health services in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet. 2007;370:1164-74.

Adane K, Gizachew M, Kendie S. The role of medical data in efficient patient care delivery: A review. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2019;12:67-73.

Salako AA, Badmus TA, Babalola RN, Igbokwe MC, David RA, Onyeze C, et al. Urologic emergencies in a low-resource setting: A 10-year review from South Western Nigeria. Niger J Med. 2020; 29:291-4.

Traore MT, Marie CA, Yameogo KD, Kabore M, Ouedraogo S. Epidemiology of Urological Emergencies at the Regional University Hospital Center of Ouahigouya, Burkina Faso. Open J Urol. 2020;10:177-83.

Boissier R, Savoie PH, Long JA. Epidemiology of urological emergencies in France. Prog Urol. 2021;31:945-55.

Diabaté I, Ondo CZ, Sow I, Ba A, Mboup C. Urological emergencies at the Hospital of Louga, Senegal: Epidemiologic features and evaluation of the Management. African Journal of Urology. 2015;21:181-6.

Bobo DA, Bah I, Diallo TM, Bah OR, Amougou B, Bah MD, et al. The profile urological emergencies at the Conakry University Teaching Hospital, Guinea. Prog Urol. 2010 Mar;20(3):214-8.

Hamza BK, Ahmed M, Tolani MA, Awaisu M, Lawal AT, Oyelowo N et al. Spectrum of Urological emergencies and surgical interventions in a single tertiary health center. African J of Emergency Med. 2021; 11:223-6.

Dialllo TO, DiaDiallo, Bah OR. Urological emergencies in a regional hospital in Senegal: A 20-month retrospective study. Pan African Med J. 2022;42:302-5.

Yenli EM, Aboah K, Sarpong GK, Azorliade R, Arhin AA. Acute and chronic urine retention among adults at the urology section of the accident and emergency unit of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana. African J urol. 2015;21: 129-36.

Cyprien Z, Timothee K, Adama O, Karim PA, Delphine YO, Lazard BB, et al. Acute urinary retention among adult men at Bob-Dioulasso University Teaching Hospital: Epidemiology, Aetiologies and Initial Management. Open J Urol. 2015;5: 91-6.

Bryk DJ, Zhao LC. Guideline of guidelines: A review of urological trauma guidelines. BJU International. 2016 Feb;117(2): 226-34.

McGeady JB, Breyer BN. Current epidemiology of genitourinary trauma. Urol Clin North Am. 2013,40:323-34.

Cassell 111 AK, Manobah B. Management of genitourinary trauma- current evaluation from the Sub-Saharan region: A systematic review. World J Crit Care Med. 2021;10: 377-89.

Atim T, Obiatuegwu KO, Eniola SB, Ajibola HO, AIsuodionoe-Shadrach OI, Dakum NK. Urological emergencies at the university of Abuja teaching hospital Gwagwalada, Nigeria: Spectrum and Initial Outcome. Niger J Med. 2017 :235-9.

Avakoudjo JDG, Soumanou FKY, Lossitode F, Hodonou FD, Gandaho Ike. Traumatic Urologic: An Experience of University Hospital of Cotonou. J Med Surg Pathol. 2018;3(3):161-4.

Abdullahi M, Yunusa B, Mashi SA, Aji SA, Alhassan SU. Urinary retention in adultadult patients: Causes and complications among patients managed in a teaching hospital in North Western Nigeria. Open J Urol. 2016;6:114–21.

Kone SI, Traore M, Yattara I, Traore T, Hiadara K, Omam FM et al. Management of Urological Emergencies at the Nianankoro Fomba Hospital in Segou: A case report of 72 patients. Open J Urol. 2022;12:242-7.