Main Article Content
Background: Urinary Tract Infection during pregnancy may cause serious complications including pyelonephritis and delivery of premature or low-birth-weight infants.
Aim: The main objective of the study was to identify the Urinary tract infection among pregnant women attending the antenatal care service visit in a selected hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal.
Study Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study.
Place and Time of Study: The study was carried out under the supervision of University and field study was carried out in Kathmandu, Nepal from March 2019 to October 2019.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was performed at the Norvic Hospital and Baidya and Banskota hospital from March 2019 to October 2019. The most frequent isolates were determined in 510 first urine samples from clinically suspected pregnant women by urine dipstick analysis, microscopic and by culture method. The identification of isolates was performed by the standard microbiological testing and the standard methods of descriptive statistics as well.
Results: Out of 510 clinically suspected urinary tract infection cases, 320 (62.6%) were culture negative. According to the microscopic examination of urine samples among gram-negative pathogens, the majority 177 (35%) Escherichia coli was the most common pathogens followed by Enterobacter cloacae 114 (22.4%) whereas among gram-positive pathogens; majority 93 (18 Staphylococcus negative coagulase was the most common pathogens.
Conclusions: The high prevalence of urinary tract infection in pregnant women warrant the need to screen all pregnant women and treat those infected with appropriate antimicrobial regimens to reduce its complications. Urinary Tract Infection screening is essential in pregnant women.
Turay A, SOE, POO, MCO. The prevalence of urinary tract infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Unjoelen Primary Health Care Centre, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. The prevalence of urinary tract infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Ujoelen primary Health Care Centre, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. 2014;3(1):86–94.
Kaduma J, Seni J, Chuma C, Kirita R, Mujuni F, Mushi MF, et al. Urinary tract infections and preeclampsia among pregnant women attending two hospitals in Mwanza City, Tanzania: A 1:2 Matched case-control study. BioMed Research International. 2019; 2019.
Lawani EU, Alade T, Oyelaran D. Urinary tract infection amongst pregnant women in Amassoma, Southern Nigeria. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2015; 9(6):355–9.
Mohamed NR, Omar HHH, Abd-Allah IM. Prevalence and risk factors of urinary tract infection among pregnant women in Ismailia City, Egypt. IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science. 2017;06(03): 62–72.
Amiri M, Lavasani Z, Norouzirad R, Najibpour R, Mohamadpour M, Nikpoor AR, et al. Prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women and its complications in their newborns during the birth in the hospitals of Dezful city, Iran, 2012 - 2013. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2015;17(8).
Primack W, Bukowski T, Sutherland R, Gravens-Mueller L, Carpenter M. What urinary colony count indicates a urinary tract infection in children? Journal of Pediatrics. 2017;191:259–261.e1.
Parajuli S, Thapa B. Microbiology of urinary tract infection and the status of urinary isolates in pregnant women. MJSBH. 1397;13(2).
Íñigo M, Coello A, Fernández-Rivas G, Rivaya B, Hidalgo J, Quesada MD, et al. Direct identification of urinary tract pathogens from urine samples, combining urine screening methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2016;54(4):988–93.
Kant S, Lohiya A, Kapil A, Gupta SK. Urinary tract infection among pregnant women at a Secondary Level Hospital in Northern India. Indian J of Public Health. 2017;61:199–204.
Rohini UV, Reddy GS, Kandati J, Ponugoti M. Prevalence and associate risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy with bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility in a tertiary care hospital. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2017;6(2):558.
Li W, Sun E, Wang Y, Pan H, Zhang Y, Li Y, et al. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for urinary tract pathogens by direct analysis of urine samples using a MALDI-TOF MS-based combined protocol. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2019;10.
Garnizov TM. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy from the perspective of public health and maternal health care: Review and case report. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment. 2016;30(3): 443–7.
Marahatta R, Dhungel BA, Pradhan P, Rai SK, Choudhury DR. Asymptomatic bacteriurea among pregnant women visiting Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. Nepal Medical College Journal : NMCJ. 2011; 13(2):107–10.
Gajdács M, Burián K, Terhes G. Resistance levels and epidemiology of non-fermenting gram-negative bacteria in Urinary Tract Infections of Inpatients and Outpatients (RENFUTI): A 10-Year Epidemiological Snapshot. Antibiotics. 2019;8(3):143.
Gajdács M, Urbán E. Comparative epidemiology and resistance trends of proteae in urinary tract infections of inpatients and outpatients: A 10-year retrospective study. Antibiotics. 2019;8(3): 91.
Gajdács M, Ábrók M, Lázár A, Burián K. Comparative epidemiology and resistance trends of common urinary pathogens in a tertiary-care hospital: A 10-year surveillance study. Medicina. 2019;55(7): 356.