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Introduction: Intrathoracic kidneys are the most uncommon type of renal ectopia, accounting for less than 5% of all cases of renal ectopia, with a reported incidence of less than 5 per 1 million.
We describe a case of an incidental left intrathoracic kidney and a literature review on the cases reported thus far.
Results: A left infra-diaphragmatic intrathoracic kidney was incidentally detected in a 65-year old male on imaging. It has the characteristic features of a high origin for its renal vessels, malrotation of the kidney, and a long ureter.
Discussion: Unlike some of the cases in published literature, it was not associated with a congenital diaphragmatic defect (Bochdalek hernia).
Most patients with asymptomatic intrathoracic kidneys do not require intervention. However, some of the cases in published literature have been associated with pelviureterojunction obstruction ( PUJO), renal pelvis stone formation, as well as malignancy.
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