Main Article Content
Kidney and ureteral stone are common trouble worldwide with substantial morbidities and economic costs. This review describes focusing on management and treatments of stones. Most ureteral stones can be observed with a reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors like stone size and location, patient's preference, available equipment and related costs. Current trends in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL),percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and ureterorenoscopy (URS). ESWL was recommended as the first-line treatment for small and intermediate-sized stones in the lower pole, URS and PCNL is recommended in large size stone treatment. Alpha-blockers are commonly used to improve stone passage through so-called medical expulsive therapy (MET). Immunosuppressive medications and calcium channel blocker use in medical therapy for distal ureteral lithiasis.In the management of kidney stones 2-3 lit/day fluid intake ensures the avoidance of kidney stones formation. Dietary modifications, lifestyle changes, and medical management are essential. This review focuses on management and treatment of kidney and ureteral stones.
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