Open Access Case Report

True Diphallia: A Report of Two Cases

Mukesh C. Arya, Ajay Gandhi, Ankur Singhal, Vivek Vasudeo, Rakesh Singh, Mahesh Sonwal

Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Urology, Page 1-4

Aims: Diphallia or penile duplication is an extremely rare congenital anomaly. It occurs once in every 5.5 million live births. Wecker (1609) reported the first case in Bologna, Italy. It varies from a small accessory penis or duplication of the glans to complete penile duplication.

Presentation of Case: A 31 years old man presented to with urinary incontinence since birth. Examination revealed skin covered exstrophy with two phalli lying side by side in sagittal plane.

Case 2: A 3 month old infant was brought to us with complete duplication of penis and urethra, two phalli lying side by side and voiding from both. Both the testes were normally descended and anal opening was normal.

Discussion and Conclusion: Penile duplication is rare and no two cases are identical. It can be true complete diphallia, partial diphallia, complete bifid phallus or partial bifid phallus. The meatus may be normal, hypospadiac, or epispadiac and the scrotum may be normal or bifid. The testes may be normal, atrophic, or undescended.

Treatment aims at preserving continence, erectile function and aesthetically acceptable genitalia.

Open Access Case Report

Large Dermoid Cyst of Spermatic Cord Excised by Total Extra-peritoneal Approach

Paritosh Gupta, T. K. Thusoo, Dhruv Kundra, Amanpriya Khanna, Aakanksha Aggarwal, Kanu Kapoor

Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Urology, Page 17-21

Dermoid Cysts of Spermatic cord are extremely rare with only a handful of cases being reported so far. We report a case of large left sided Dermoid Cyst of Spermatic cord in an adult patient. It was successfully removed via Laparoscopic Total Extra-Peritoneal approach. To the best of our knowledge, it is first such case of Spermatic Cord Dermoid cyst to be treated by this technique.

Open Access Short Research Article

Load Tests in Diagnostics of the Kidney Form of Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Children

Sevara Yangieva

Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Urology, Page 22-25

After the introduction of calcium chloride (12.4 mg / kg), its blood level was examined at 20 and 120 minutes. The calcium content in children of the comparison group at 120 minutes returned to its original level, in patients with renal form (RF PHPT) its level was 1.3 times higher. The test was sensitive and made it possible to detect hypercalcemia in 39 children, in whom there was normal and hypocalcemia. Impaired renal function did not affect the significance of the sample. Under the influence of a hypertonic solution of sodium chloride, osmotic hypertension develops. Under conditions of osmotic diuresis, the elimination of calcium and sodium cations is interconnected. An increase in the level of sodium in the loops of Henley and the distal renal tubules stimulates the excretion of sodium, reducing its reabsorption, which leads to an increase in the level of calcium in daily urine in children with PHT. A sample with sodium chloride made it possible to detect hypercalciuria in 11 (21.1%) children who had normocalciuria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Urinary Incontinence Prevalence in Women in Morocco

Nada Otmani, Nadia Benaicha, Angéla Filankembo, Noura Qarmiche, Passy Cande, Soumaya Ben Maamar, Ibtissam El Harch, Bineta Jho Diagne, Imade Chakri, Moncef Maiouak, Samira El Fakir, Nabil Tachfouti

Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Urology, Page 5-16

Background: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common health problem, especially in older women. It has a major impact on the quality of life, physical and psychological well-being of patients.

Aims: We aimed to determine the prevalence of UI and identify its risk factors in the Fez-Meknes region, Morocco.

Study Design and Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adult female outpatient in primary healthcare facilities in fez during 2019. Data was collected using anonymous questionnaire. UI was defined according to international guidelines. Univariate analyses were used to assess associations of UI with demographic characteristics and risk factors. Multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounding.

Results: About 189 women were included, the average age was 39.26 years (SD = 14.40 years). Prevalence of UI was 32.8%. It increased significantly with age (65% of women over 60 years of age were incontinent compared to 12% of women under 30 years of age(P=.001)), the high BMI  (P =.002), and in women exposed to passive smoking (P =.005). The history of vaginal deliveries (P <.0001), instrumental deliveries (P =.001), and menopause (P <.0001) were also significantly associated with the occurrence of UI.

Factors remaining significantly associated with UI in multivariate analysis were the age (OR=1.09; (1.04-1.13)), the history of abdominal surgery (OR=4.7; (1.55-14.3)), the exposition to the passive smoking (OR=4.06; (1.08-15.29)), and the history of tool delivery (OR=3.8 (1.03-14.4)).

Conclusion: Our results show a significant frequency of urinary incontinence in women in our region, which suggests the implementation of its systematic screening in general practice consultation in women at risk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection in Women Attending Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital, Kano State, Nigeria

Muhammad Salihu Abdallah, Maimuna Bashir Ibrahim, Adamu Abdullahi Shehu

Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Urology, Page 26-32

Background: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) happened to be caused by the presence and growth of microorganisms anywhere in the urinary tract. Women were more vulnerable to as well as many factors contributed towards the development of UTIs.

Methods: Early morning midstream urine samples were collected from Murtala Muhammad Hospital. Freshly prepared cysteine-lactose electrolyte deficient (CLED) agar and MacConkey Agar were used and plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours for isolation. The resulting pure colonies obtained were used for biochemical tests aimed at identifying the bacterial isolates as well as subjected to Gram staining.

Results: Out of 120 samples screened from both pregnant (60) and non-pregnant (60) women suspected of urinary tract infection, 21(35%) pregnant women were positive, 39(65%) were negative and 16(26.7%) non-pregnant women were positive, 44(73.3%) were negative. The study showed the prevalence of urinary tract infection of 21 (35%) and 16 (26.7%) among pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively, indicated that about 35% of pregnant women were at risk of development for acute episode of urinary tract infection during pregnancy that lack of proper treatment. In the present study the infection rate was higher between age group 23-27 years in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. According to this study, highest incidence of UTI was seen in third trimester 10 (47.6%), followed by second trimester 7 (33.3%) and least was seen in first 4 (19.0%). In the present research, the most frequent isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (45.9%), Escherichia coli (35.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.8%), Proteus mirabilis (5.4%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.7%).

Conclusion: Urinary tract infection appeared to be multifactorial. A screening for UTI in women especially pregnant women must be done to discover the infected cases, which could allow early treatment to avoid the complications. As such, strong personal hygiene is recommended since most of the causative organisms were of faecal origin as well as sound health education on preventive measures of the diseases should be provided by government so as to curve the menace of this deadly infection.