Open Access Case Study

Intrathoracic Kidney – A Case Report and Literature Review

Siying Yeow

Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Urology, Page 1-5

Introduction: Intrathoracic kidneys are the most uncommon type of renal ectopia, accounting for less than 5% of all cases of renal ectopia, with a reported incidence of less than 5 per 1 million.

We describe a case of an incidental left intrathoracic kidney and a literature review on the cases reported thus far.

Results: A left infra-diaphragmatic intrathoracic kidney was incidentally detected in a 65-year old male on imaging. It has the characteristic features of a high origin for its renal vessels, malrotation of the kidney, and a long ureter.

Discussion: Unlike some of the cases in published literature, it was not associated with a congenital diaphragmatic defect (Bochdalek hernia).

Most patients with asymptomatic intrathoracic kidneys do not require intervention. However, some of the cases in published literature have been associated with pelviureterojunction obstruction ( PUJO), renal pelvis stone formation, as well as malignancy.

Open Access Minireview Article

Mini Review-Bladder Cancer (Urological Disorder)

Pradnya Nilesh Jagtap, Sayali S. Chavan, Nayana Bhikaji Mirke, Pranesh Pandurang Memane

Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Urology, Page 24-28

Bladder cancer is most common urological disorder. It occurs in any age group. It is common in male rather than female. Bladder cancer have some causal factors. This review focus on bladder cancer causal factor, symptom, Diagnostic test and treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Effect of Herniotomy on Testicular Volume in Children

Chukwubuike Kevin Emeka

Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Urology, Page 6-11

Aim: To determine the effect of surgery for hernia or hydrocele in children (herniotomy) on the volume of the testis, using ultrasonography to measure the testicular volume.

Study Design: This was a prospective study of children that had herniotomy for unilateral hernia and hydrocele over a 12-months period.

Place and Duration of Study: Pediatric surgery unit, department of Surgery, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. 12 months duration.

Methodology: Consecutive children, less than 15 years, who presented during the study period with unilateral inguinal hernia/hydrocele were recruited into the study. The procedure and the study were explained to the parents/caregiver and informed consent obtained. Pre-operative testicular volumes of both testes were measured.  At 12 months post-operatively, repeat testicular volumes were measured to determine if there is any significant change in the volume of the testes. All testicular volumes were measured using ultrasound.

Results: There were 42 unilateral herniotomies performed during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 22.4 ± 18.2 months (range: 4-73 months). There 22 (52.3%) hernias and 20 (47.7%) hydroceles. The overall mean volume of the unilateral testes before herniotomy was 1.7 ± 0.4 cm3 while the overall mean volume of the testes after surgery was 1.4 ± 0.4 cm3, p value = 0.004. For the contralateral testis, the mean pre-operative and post-operative testicular volumes were 1.8 ± 0.5 and 1.9 ± 0.4 cm3 respectively, p value = 0.354. There was one recurrence and one surgical site infection.

Conclusion: There was significant change in testicular volumes following herniotomy for unilateral hernias and hydroceles in children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histological and Biochemical Changes in Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome on Kidney of Wistar Rats

M. O. Mohammed, M. Isah, O. O. Okechi, A. T. Muhammad, R. I. Tsamiya, U. Abubakar, I. Mohammed, O. G. Avwioro, A. Umar, S. M. Sani, B. A. Bello, A. A. Ngaski, J. M. Bunza, H. Kabir, A. Abdulaziz, I. Jelani, A. S. Ajayi, F. A. Dogondaji, A. Y. Ma’aruf, A. M. Zakari, K. Bello, D. Sahabi, E. E. Nnadozie

Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Urology, Page 29-35

Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities which confers upon an individual substantial increase risk factors of cardiovascular disease including hypertension, central obesity, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia.

Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the histogical and biochemical parameters changes of kidney of sucrose induced metabolic syndrome in wistar rats.

Methodology: A total number of 24 wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group A was given plain distilled water which serve as control. Group B was given 10% sucrose distilled water and group C was given 20% sucrose distilled water.The rat was sacrifice by inhalation of chloroform vapour in an enclosed transparent jar. The blood specimens were collected, poured into plain container and analysed for biochemical parameters (Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Urea, and Creatinine, triglycerides, High density lipoprotein, Body mass index, Uric acid and Glucose).The Kidney was carefully harvested, washed with normal saline, then fixed in 10% formol saline, processed. Sectioned and stained with Ha and E stain.

Results: Results obtained revealed that sodium, potassium and chloride of group C (20% sucrose distilled water), the kidney parameters were significantly low when compared with control group. Serum Urea and Creatinine in group B (10%) and group C (20%) shows no statistical difference when compared with control group. The Triglycerides, High density lipoprotein and uric acid shows no statistical significant changes in both groups (10% and 20% sucrose distilled water) when compared with control group but glucose was significantly higher when compared with control group. The histological finding showed no changes on the histology of the kidney in group B (10% sucrose distilled water) but in group C (20% sucrose distilled water) there was scanty deposition of fats cells on the glomeruli.

Conclusion: The study shows that sodium, potassium and chloride were very low when compared with control but glucose was significantly higher when compared with control group. The histology of the kidney showed scanty deposition of fats cell in 20% sucrose distilled water.

Open Access Review Article

Management and Treatment of Kidney and Ureteral Stone

Pranesh Pandurang Memane, Sayali Sunil Chavan, Nayana Bhikaji Mirke, Pradnya Nilesh Jagtap

Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Urology, Page 12-23

Kidney and ureteral stone are common trouble worldwide with substantial morbidities and economic costs. This review describes focusing on management and treatments of stones. Most ureteral stones can be observed with a reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors like stone size and location, patient's preference, available equipment and related costs. Current trends in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL),percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and ureterorenoscopy (URS). ESWL was recommended as the first-line treatment for small and intermediate-sized stones in the lower pole, URS and PCNL is recommended in large size stone treatment. Alpha-blockers are commonly used to improve stone passage through so-called medical expulsive therapy (MET). Immunosuppressive medications and calcium channel blocker use in medical therapy for distal ureteral lithiasis.In the management of kidney stones 2-3 lit/day fluid intake ensures the avoidance of kidney stones formation. Dietary modifications, lifestyle changes, and medical management are essential. This review focuses on management and treatment of kidney and ureteral stones.